Service Activity number: 11.1
Name of the SA:E2-M3A – SOUTHERN ADRIATIC DEEP WATER FORMATION, HEAT BUDGET, AND CARBONATE SYSTEM TO ASSESS CLIMATIC VARIATION AND OCEAN ACIDIFICATION
Institute:OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale)
The E2-M3A observatory: a tool to monitor deep-water formation and the carbonate system to assess climatic variation and ocean acidification SA.
The E2M3A observatory, located in the Southern Adriatic Pit, works almost continuously since 2006 hosting the longest open-sea time series in the Adriatic (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). It is positioned in the centre of the cyclonic gyre where deep convection process takes place, involving both the atmosphere and the ocean dynamics and forming new dense and oxygenated waters, thus triggering the solubility and the biological pump. The E2-M3A observatory is particularly devoted towards studies for characterising the long-term changes of Adriatic Sea in response to local climatic forcing. The site consists of a surface buoy and two moorings positioned at a bottom depth of 1160m. The dynamics of the area is dominated by the presence of a quasi-permanent cyclonic gyre that intensifies in the winter season creating the conditions for the production of dense and oxygenated waters with the contribution of the saltier intermediate layer dominated by the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW). The Adriatic Dense Water (AdDW) formed prevalently by the open-ocean vertical convection, is then exported through the Strait of Otranto to the rest of the Eastern Mediterranean basin and becomes the main component of the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water (EMDW).
The recorded time-series at the E2-M3A station can be used for studies of long-term changes of Adriatic response to local climatic forcing. The volume of the dense water formed surrounding the station can be correlated to the winter heat losses. The amount of the dense water formed also determines the water exchange between the Adriatic and Eastern Mediterranean.
E2M3A Observatory offers 27 months data starting in September’14 (month 13) within the SA. This includes open access to data, mostly provided in real-time on the variation of surface temperature, salinity, oxygen, as well as meteorological data and surface water carbonate system (pH, pCO2) to assess ocean acidification. Atmospheric-sea interaction is obtained by means of total heat fluxes calculated at the site. Derived products as water column heat content change and water column Hoffmöller diagrams are obtained from temperature and salinity data at different levels of the ocean interior down to the seafloor facilitating the understanding of the deep water formation process taking place in the area. These data are obtained in delayed mode and are available less than 3-4 months after mooring maintenance. SA 11.1 includes also re-analyses of collected raw data in order to provide information on deep-water formation events, and heat-budget variability at the E2M3A. Time series are available for visualisation through web graphic tool and graphic output.
Graphical output of data from the E2M3A observatory are available at:
- meteorological and biochemical real-time data
- CTD delayed-mode data
- currents delayed-mode data, from ADCP and RCM
- carbonate delayed-mode data
- derived heat fluxes at the sea-air interface, from ECMWF operational datasets
- heat/salt budgets throughout the water column, derived from CTD time-series
Again, graphical output (monthly and daily delayed-mode data) are also available on the FIXO3 webpage in the section Observatories (http://www.fixo3.eu/observatory-data-e2-m3a/). Using an interactive online tool (EMECO Datatools), users are able to query the data and to produce integrated data sets and information products as outputs.
Using the EMECO Datatools, it is possible to visualise GIS assessment maps, KML/KMZ files, time series charts and download data in XML or CSV formats. All outputs are generated “on the fly”.
Quality checked data are available on the NODC-OGS database:
Metadata (e.g. observatory type, time, geographical location, and sensor type and depths) are available on the FIXO3 webpage, as well as at the following url:
- http://nodc.ogs.trieste.it/nodc/metadata/edmeddetails/1805 (2006-2010)
- http://nodc.ogs.trieste.it/nodc/metadata/edmeddetails/1866 (2013-2015)
|E2M3A Nov06 Oct15 Pden||1.1 MiB|
|E2M3A Nov06 Oct15 Ptemp||1.2 MiB|
|E2M3A Nov06 Oct15 Sal||1.2 MiB|
|Flussi Boa 06-15||1.4 MiB|
|Flussi Boa Ago14-dec15||1.2 MiB|
|HS E2M3A Nov06 Oct15||782.6 KiB|
|PH pCO2 apr2015 gen 2016||103.3 KiB|
|SS E2M3A Nov06 Oct15||786.3 KiB|
|WindStress Boa 06-15||2.1 MiB|