E2-M3A Service Activities

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Service Activity number: 11.1

Name of the SA:E2-M3A – SOUTHERN ADRIATIC DEEP WATER FORMATION, HEAT BUDGET, AND CARBONATE SYSTEM TO ASSESS CLIMATIC VARIATION AND OCEAN ACIDIFICATION

Institute:OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale)

Description:

The E2-M3A observatory: a tool to monitor deep-water formation and the carbonate system to assess climatic variation and ocean acidification SA.

The E2M3A observatory, located in the Southern Adriatic Pit, works almost continuously since 2006 hosting the longest open-sea time series in the Adriatic (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). It is positioned in the centre of the cyclonic gyre where deep convection process takes place, involving both the atmosphere and the ocean dynamics and forming new dense and oxygenated waters, thus triggering the solubility and the biological pump. The E2-M3A observatory is particularly devoted towards studies for characterising the long-term changes of Adriatic Sea in response to local climatic forcing. The site consists of a surface buoy and two moorings positioned at a bottom depth of 1160m. The dynamics of the area is dominated by the presence of a quasi-permanent cyclonic gyre that intensifies in the winter season creating the conditions for the production of dense and oxygenated waters with the contribution of the saltier intermediate layer dominated by the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW). The Adriatic Dense Water (AdDW) formed prevalently by the open-ocean vertical convection, is then exported through the Strait of Otranto to the rest of the Eastern Mediterranean basin and becomes the main component of the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water (EMDW).

The recorded time-series at the E2-M3A station can be used for studies of long-term changes of Adriatic response to local climatic forcing. The volume of the dense water formed surrounding the station can be correlated to the winter heat losses. The amount of the dense water formed also determines the water exchange between the Adriatic and Eastern Mediterranean.

E2M3A Observatory offers 27 months data starting in September’14 (month 13) within the SA. This includes open access to data, mostly provided in real-time on the variation of surface temperature, salinity, oxygen, as well as meteorological data and surface water carbonate system (pH, pCO2) to assess ocean acidification. Atmospheric-sea interaction is obtained by means of total heat fluxes calculated at the site. Derived products as water column heat content change and water column Hoffmöller diagrams are obtained from temperature and salinity data at different levels of the ocean interior down to the seafloor facilitating the understanding of the deep water formation process taking place in the area. These data are obtained in delayed mode and are available less than 3-4 months after mooring maintenance. SA 11.1 includes also re-analyses of collected raw data in order to provide information on deep-water formation events, and heat-budget variability at the E2M3A. Time series are available for visualisation through web graphic tool and graphic output.

Outputs:

WindStress_boa_06-15

WindStress boa 06-15

 

SS_E2M3A_nov06_oct15

SS E2M3A nov06-oct15

 

pHpCO2apr2015gen2016

pH pCO2 apr2015 gen 2016

 

HS_E2M3A_nov06_oct15

HS E2M3A nov06-oct15

 

flussi_boa_ago14-dec15

Flussi boa ago14 dec 15

 

flussi_boa_06-15

Flussi boa 06-15

 

E2M3A_nov06_oct15_sal

E2M3A nov06-oct15 sal

 

E2M3A_nov06_oct15_ptemp

E2M3A nov06-oct15 ptemp

 

E2M3A_nov06_oct15_pden

E2M3A nov06-oct15 pden

Links:

Graphical output of data from the E2M3A observatory are available at:

Again, graphical output (monthly and daily delayed-mode data) are also available on the FIXO3 webpage in the section Observatories (http://www.fixo3.eu/observatory-data-e2-m3a/). Using an interactive online tool (EMECO Datatools), users are able to query the data and to produce integrated data sets and information products as outputs.

Using the EMECO Datatools, it is possible to visualise GIS assessment maps, KML/KMZ files, time series charts and download data in XML or CSV formats. All outputs are generated “on the fly”.

Quality checked data are available on the NODC-OGS database:

Metadata (e.g. observatory type, time, geographical location, and sensor type and depths) are available on the FIXO3 webpage, as well as at the following url:

Download outputs 

NameSize
NameSize
E2M3A Nov06 Oct15 Pden1.1 MiB
PH pCO2 apr2015 gen 2016103.3 KiB
SS E2M3A Nov06 Oct15786.3 KiB
Flussi Boa 06-151.4 MiB
E2M3A Nov06 Oct15 Sal1.2 MiB
WindStress Boa 06-152.1 MiB
HS E2M3A Nov06 Oct15782.6 KiB
Flussi Boa Ago14-dec151.2 MiB
E2M3A Nov06 Oct15 Ptemp1.2 MiB