STATION M

Station M

Ocean Weather Station M (OWS M) has been an ocean weather station since 1948. At present there is a mooring and a surface buoy at the site, which measures hydrography, O2, chlorophyll and carbon parameters. Located in Norwegian Sea with real-time and delayed mode capabilities. The site present the longest existing homogeneous time series from deep ocean. The facility presented here is the mooring situated betveen 150 and 2000 m.

http://www.fixo3.eu/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/OWSM-mooring-May2013.jpg

Infrastructure Location

Study Area

Location Norwegian Sea
Distance from Land
Max Depth 2000 m
Oceanographic features of area The site is located in the western branch of the Norwegian Atlantic Current. The general picture when it comes to water masses is an layer of relatively warm Atlantic Water in the upper 300-400 m, cold Norwegian Atlantic Deep water below about 1200 m, and intermediate water between.
Relevant publications isi journals Assmann, K.M., Bentsen, M., Segschneider, J., & Heinze, C., An isopycnic ocean carbon cycle model. Geoscientific Model Development 3, 143-167 (2010).
Brooks, I.M. et al., Physical Exchanges at the Air-Sea Interface: UK-SOLAS Field Measurements. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90 (5), 629-644 (2009).
Findlay, H.S., Tyrrell, T., Bellerby, R.G.J., Merico, A., & Skjelvan, I., Carbon and nutrient mixed layer dynamics in the Norwegian Sea. Biogeosciences 5 (1395-1410) (2008).
Haugan, P.M., Observatories for Understanding Arctic Change. Climate Change and Arctic Sustainable Development UNESCO Press 2010 (303-308) (2010a).
Hughes, S.L. & et al., Comparison of in situ time-series of temperature with gridded sea surface temperature datasets in the North Atlantic. ICES Journal of Marine Science 66 (7) (2009).
Lauvset, S. et al., Direct measurements of CO2 flux in the Greenland Sea. Geophysical Research Letters 38, L12603 (2011).
Olsen, A. et al., Overview of the Nordic Seas CARINA data and salinity measurements. Earth System Sciences Data 1, 25-34 (2009).
Pesant, S. et al., Safeguarding and sharing ocean acidification data, edited by V. J. Fabry U. Riebesell, L. Hansson and J.-P. Gattuso (Publications office of the European Union 2010), pp. 243-258.
Prytherch, J. et al., Direct measurements of the CO2 flux over the ocean: Development of a novel method. Geophysical Research Letters 37 (2010).
Roy, T. et al., Regional impacts of climate change and atmospheric CO2 on future ccean Carbon uptake: A multimodel linear feedback analysis. Journal of Climate 24, 2300-2318 (2011).
Sabine, C.L. et al., Gridding of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT). Earth System Science Data (2011).
Schulze, E.-D. et al., Integrated assessment of the European and North Atlantic Carbon Balance - key results, policy implications for post 2012 and research needs, edited by Office for Official Publications of the European Communities European Commission (Luxembourg, 2009), pp. 141.
Skjelvan, I., Falck, E., Rey, F., & Kringstad, S.B., Inorganic carbon time series at Ocean Weather Station M in the Norwegian Sea. Biogeosciences 5, 549-560 (2008).
Takahashi, T. et al., Climatological mean and decadal change in surface ocean pCO2 and net sea-air CO2 flux over the global oceans. Deep-Sea Research II 56, 554-557 (2009).
Relevant publications proceedings published in the context of conference

Scientific Researchers

Name Email
Ingunn Skjelvan (SA) <Please login to view>
Svein Østerhus (TNA) <Please login to view>

Technicians

Name Email
Steinar Myking <Please login to view>
Tor de Lange <Please login to view>

Status / Maintenance

System Status Operational Planned Frequency 12 month(s)
Platform Required Deep Sea Research Vessel People Involved 3
Duration of Operations 4 day(s) Cleaning Yes
Replacments Yes Download Data Yes

Data Information

Final data output format ASCII NetCDF Data Quality Check Yes
Type of quality check on real-time/near-real time data Manual Real Time – Data availability target
Type of Quality check on delayed mode data Manual Delayed Mode – Data availability target
Own data management Yes Type of use of data Data assimilation Research
Data Management Link
GEOSS URN
GEOSS Link

TNA

The site OWS M has an over 60 years long history starting as a weather station in 1948. Several weather ships operated the station between 1948 and 2009, and from this site we have the longest existing homogeneous time series from deep ocean. At present the site hosts a surface buoy and a mooring located between 150 and 2000 m.

Services currently offered by the infrastructure:

Buoy and mooring were deployed in September 2011 at station M in the Norwegian Sea. Every 2 hours different sensors measure hydrography, pH and pCO2 in addition to chlorophyll and O2 at selected depths from surface to 2000 m water depth. Real time data from the surface buoy are sent to shore and are provided as raw data at the web site http://www.imr.no/forskning/forskningsdata/stasjonm/view.html. Data from the mooring are currently internally stored, and on the occasion of the annual maintenance these data are downloaded and made available.

pH and pCO2 data are made availabe through data products as part of Service Activity (WP10).

Hydrography data from the mooring are made available in connection to TNA (WP9).

Avaliable for TNA Yes
Prefered time period for TNA During retrieving and re-deployment cruised generally in March and June.
TNA Support offered Basic infrastructure is offered. Technical assistance adding additional sensors or complete monitoring system to the site. Additional sensors can be added to the docking stations (limit of 30 sensors for 50-600 m) and clamp-on instruments can be added to the deeper part and use the Argo data communication to the data storage at 500 m and future transmission to the surface unit. Our research vessels will visit the site regularly and ship time will be available for TNA.
Financial contribution to the running costs and ships time is expected as part of TNA. Contribution to costs that rise from adapting the observatory design to host additional sensors.
Services Available Mooring between 150 and 2000 m.
Potential Additional Uses Researchers and others
Data Ports Self-logging
Availability of External Power Self-powered
Instrument installation methodology

Depending on instrument. Advice from UoB/Uniresearch team

Data History

Oceanic weather station data since 1948. Mooring data since May 2013.

Instrument installation methodology Maitenance procedure available from Uniresearch/UoB team
Observatory maintenance estimated or planned schedules Next re-deployment is in June 2014. Maintenance in April and May 2014
Data policy and access FixO3/EuroSITES data policy: http://www.eurosites.info/pdf/EuroSITES%20Data%20Policy.pdf.
Data connected to TNA is made available as part of WP9.
Dataproducts based on pH and pCO2 are delivered as part of Service Activity (WP10).
Additional comments
Modality of access In-Person

Hardware Services

Type Model Use Problems Solution adopted

Sensors

Deployed 30/05/2013 Planned
Instrument/Sensor Type Aanderaa 4330 Optode Parameter(s) DOXY
Platform Mooring Manufacturer Aanderaa
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL) http://www.aanderaa.com/productsdetail.php?Oxygen- Optodes-2
Sensor Type / Model Optical, luminescence quenching Power Supply powered by SeaGuard
Approximate Depth / Height 150, 200, 350 Sampling interval
Calibration Samples Available Yes Frequency of Calibration Samples
Intercalibration Available Yes Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 30/05/2013 Planned
Instrument/Sensor Type SeaGuard Sensor String Parameter(s) COND, DOXY, PSAL, TEMP
Platform Mooring Manufacturer Aanderaa
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL)
Sensor Type / Model Sensor String Power Supply powered by Stringlogger
Approximate Depth / Height 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400 Sampling interval
Calibration Samples Available Yes Frequency of Calibration Samples
Intercalibration Available Yes Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 30/05/2013 Planned
Instrument/Sensor Type Seaguard String Logger Parameter(s) PRES, PSAL, TEMP
Platform Mooring Manufacturer Aanderaa
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL)
Sensor Type / Model StringLogger Power Supply battery
Approximate Depth / Height 500 Sampling interval
Calibration Samples Available Yes Frequency of Calibration Samples
Intercalibration Available Yes Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 30/05/2013 Planned
Instrument/Sensor Type SeaBird SBE37 Parameter(s) COND, CTD, PRES, TEMP
Platform Mooring Manufacturer SeaBird
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL)
Sensor Type / Model CTD Microcat Power Supply battery
Approximate Depth / Height 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1500, 2000 Sampling interval
Calibration Samples Available Yes Frequency of Calibration Samples
Intercalibration Available Yes Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments