FRAM

FRAM - FRontiers in Arctic marine Monitoring

Array of moorings and permanent sampling sites across the Fram Strait. Installed to capture the exchange of Atlantic and Arctic waters, and to study the temporal development of an Arctic marine ecosystem. Enables year-round multidisciplinary long-term observations, partially with near real-time data access.

http://www.fixo3.eu/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/FRAM-2014_11.jpg

Infrastructure Location

Study Area

Location Fram Strait
Distance from Land 150 km
Max Depth 5500 m
Oceanographic features of area Two main currents control the water mass exchange through Fram Strait. Arctic surface waters flow southward in the East Greenland Current along Fram Straits western border. Along the eastern margin Atlantic Waters flow northward in the West Spitsbergen Current. These major currents are seperated by a transition zone of denser upper-layer waters. Results of recent modelling studies emphasise the importance of the Fram Strait for heat inflow to and freshwater export from the Arctic Ocean. Related to the seabottom topography recirculation patterns exist which introduce cooled Atlantic Water to the East Greenland Current, preparing it for deep water formation in the Greenland Sea. Moreover water mass exchange and variation in the Fram Strait influences the formation of Norwegian Sea Overflow Water, contributing to the global ocean ventilation.
Relevant publications isi journals Bauerfeind, E. , Nöthig, E.-M., Pauls, B., Kraft A. and Beszczynska-Möller A. (2014) Variability in pteropod sedimentation and corresponding aragonite flux at the Arctic deep-sea long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN in the eastern Fram Strait from 2000 to 2009, Journal of Marine Systems (in press)
Lalande, C. , Bauerfeind, E. , Nöthig, E. M. and Beszczynska-Möller, A. (2013) Impact of a warm anomaly on export fluxes of biogenic matter in the eastern Fram Strait, Progress In Oceanography, 109 , pp. 70-77.
Meyer, K. , Bergmann, M. and Soltwedel, T. (2013) Interannual variation in the epibenthic megafauna at the shallowest station of the HAUSGARTEN observatory (79°N, 6°E), Biogeosciences, 10 , pp. 3479-3492.
Beszczynska-Möller, A., Fahrbach, E., Schauer, U. and Hansen, E. (2012) Variability in Atlantic water temperature and transport at the entrance to the Arctic Ocean, 1997–2010. ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fss056.
Bergmann, M. , Soltwedel, T. and Klages, M. (2011) The interannual variability of megafaunal assemblages in the Arctic deep sea: preliminary results from the HAUSGARTEN observatory (79°N), Deep Sea Research I, 58 , pp. 711-723.
Kraft, A. , Bauerfeind, E. and Nöthig, E. M. (2011) Amphipod abundance in sediment trap samples at the long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN (Fram Strait, ~79°N/4°E). Variability in species community patterns, Marine Biodiversity, 41 , pp. 353-364.
Rabe, B. , Dodd, P. , Hansen, E. , Falck, E. , Schauer, U. , Mackensen, A. , Beszczynska-Möller, A. , Kattner, G. , Rohling, E. and Cox, K. (2013) Liquid export of Arctic freshwater components through the Fram Strait 1998 – 2011, Ocean Science, 9 , pp. 91-109.
Bauerfeind, E. , Nöthig, E. M. , Beszczynska, A. , Fahl, K. , Kaleschke, L. , Kreker, K. , Klages, M. , Soltwedel, T. , Lorenzen, C. and Wegner, J. (2009) Variations in vertical particle flux in the Eastern Fram Strait (79°N/4°E) during 2000-2005. Results from the Deep-Sea Long-Term observatory HAUSGARTEN, Deep- Sea Research I, 56 , pp. 1471-1487.
Hoste, E. , Vanhove, S. , Schewe, I. , Soltwedel, T. and Vanreusel, A. (2007) Spatial and temporal variations in deep-sea meiofauna assemblages in the Marginal Ice Zone of the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Research I, 54 (1), pp. 109-129.
Soltwedel, T. , Bauerfeind, E. , Bergmann, M. , Budaeva, N. , Hoste, E. , Jaeckisch, N. , Juterzenka, K. v. , Matthießen, J. , Mokievsky, V. , Nöthig, E. M. , Quéric, N. , Sablotny, B. , Sauter, E. , Schewe, I. , Urban-Malinga, B. , Wegner, J. , Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, M. and Klages, M. (2005) HAUSGARTEN: multidisciplinary investigations at a deep-sea, long-term observatory in the Arctic Ocean, Oceanography, 18 (3), pp. 46-61.
Relevant publications proceedings published in the context of conference Soltwedel, T. , Schauer, U. , Boebel, O. , Nöthig, E. M. , Bracher, A. , Metfies, K. , Schewe, I. , Klages, M. and Boetius, A. (2013) FRAM - FRontiers in Arctic marine Monitoring: Permanent Observations in a Gateway to the Arctic Ocean, OCEANS - Bergen, 2013 MTS/IEEE, doi:10.1109/OCEANS-Bergen.2013.6608008.

Scientific Researchers

Name Email
Catherine Lalande <Please login to view>
Melanie Bergmann <Please login to view>
Christiane Hasemann <Please login to view>
Eduard Bauerfeind <Please login to view>
Ingo Schewe <Please login to view>
Thomas Soltwedel <Please login to view>

Technicians

Name Email
Burkhard Sablotny <Please login to view>
Normen Lochthofen <Please login to view>
Sascha Lehmenhecker <Please login to view>
Thorben Wulff <Please login to view>
Ulrich Hoge <Please login to view>
Tim Küber <Please login to view>

Status / Maintenance

System Status Operational Planned Frequency 12 month(s)
Platform Required Deep Sea Research Vessel, Icebreaker People Involved 20
Duration of Operations 14 day(s) Cleaning Yes
Replacments Yes Download Data Yes

Data Information

Final data output format ASCII Data Quality Check Yes
Type of quality check on real-time/near-real time data Manual Real Time – Data availability target
Type of Quality check on delayed mode data Manual Delayed Mode – Data availability target months
Own data management Yes Type of use of data Research
Data Management Link www.pangaea.de/search?q=project:AWI_PhyOce+OR+project:Hausgarten&maxlat=80&minlon=-15&maxlon=12&minlat=78
GEOSS URN
GEOSS Link

TNA

Surface and Midwater

Hosting: Oceanographic and sediment-trap moorings can host additional autonomous systems. Annual ship operations are used for sensor installation, maintenance and data download (real-time communication projected).

Measurements and sampling: CTD, water sampling, plankton hauls, detection of zooplankton by optical systems like LOKI (Lightframe On-sight key-species Investigation).

Data: pH, CO2, Chl-a, salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence. Derived data (see WP10 (SA) for related services): nutrient budgets, currents, plankton productivity, POC export, plankton diversity, ground truthing for remote sensing.

Seafloor

Hosting: Additional sensor packages and experiments can be mounted on moored lander systems.

Measurements, sampling and observation: Microprofiler and SCOC measurements; Sediment sampling with multiple and box corer; ROV-based sampling upon request; seafloor imaging (camera systems).

Data: Salinity, temperature, currents, oxygen, particle flux, CO2; derived data products (see WP10 (SA) for related services): benthic biomass and diversity, respiration, nutrient fluxes, seafloor images.

Modality of Access

remote (if specific sensors or equipment can be deployed without large effort);
partially remote (in case of integration of a remotely operating instrument of a user into the infrastructure, for an instrument that will need to be deployed, exchanged or retrieved in person from the site);
in person (in case of ship-based measurements, sampling or observations associated with the observatory site)

Avaliable for TNA Yes
Prefered time period for TNA summer months
TNA Support offered Besides logistical, technological and scientific support for all installations including annual access via POLARSTERN, gliders, floats and AUV are available and might be accessible upon request. All vehicles and moorings can host a variety of sensors and communication systems, e.g. hydrophone, radiometer, PAR-sensor, modem, and small autonomous instruments/experiments. Adaptations of additional payload in close cooperation with TNA provider possible upon request.
Services Available Data and sensor inter-comparison and validation (oceanographical sensors), including various derived data products for ecosystem assessment and remote sensing groundtruthing.
Potential Additional Uses
Data Ports -
Availability of External Power no
Instrument installation methodology

Intruments can be installed on moorings and benthic landers.

Data History

Most of the data since 1997 are freely available under the open access regulations of the PANGAEA data-base.

Instrument installation methodology Yearly maintenance of deployed sensors and instruments during the arctic summer season.
Observatory maintenance estimated or planned schedules
Data policy and access PANGAEA is a member of the ICSU World Data System. The policy of data management and archiving follows the ICSU World Data System Data Policy and the OECD Principles and Guidelines for Access to Research Data from Public Funding. Authors submitting data to the Pangaea data library for archiving aggree that all data are provided under a creative commons license.
Most of the data are freely available and can be used under the terms of the license mentioned on the data set description. A few password protected data sets are under moratorium from ongoing projects. The description of each data set is always visible and includes the principle investigator (PI) who may be asked for access.
Additional comments
Modality of access In-Person Partially Remote Remote

Hardware Services

Type Model Use Problems Solution adopted
Ocean Floor Observation System ISITEC OFOS Towed camera system for sea floor imagery. Deep water requiring large ship for recovery.
HD Video transmission.
Fibre optic cable
Deep-Sea benthic landers GEOMAR type Base for deep sea long and short term experiments.
Mounting of various sensors, cameras, traps, etc.
Needs to withstand deep-sea conditions.
Deep water requiring large ship for recovery.
High pressure housing
Sediment-Trap Moorings Full ocean depth with subsurface buoy. Sediment traps in 500, 1000 and 2300 m waterdepths. Biological Oceanography, flux measurements. Needs to withstand deep-sea conditions.
Deep water requiring large ship for recovery.
High pressure housing
Oceanographic Moorings Full ocean depth with subsurface buoy Physical Oceanaography Needs to withstand deep-sea conditions.
Deep water requiring large ship for recovery.
High pressure housing

Software Services

Sensor type/model Software for the pre-processing Software for the post post-processing Software for the production of graphical output
SBE37-SMP Seasoft© V2
Hyperterminal
Matlab Matlab
4D-client
Ocean Data View
Kiel-type sediment trap Hyperterminal Excel Excel
4D-client
Ocean Data View
Sediment Oxygen Profiler Hyperterminal Excel Excel
4D-client
RCM11 Aanderaa data Reading Program 5059
Hyperterminal
Matlab Matlab
4D-client
Ocean Data View

Sensors

Deployed 01/07/2013 Planned 30/05/2014
Instrument/Sensor Type Kiel-type sediment trap Parameter(s)
Platform Other : Benthic Lander Manufacturer KUM
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL)
Sensor Type / Model K/MT236 Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height 2500 Sampling interval
Calibration Samples Available Yes Frequency of Calibration Samples
Intercalibration Available Yes Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 01/07/2013 Planned
Instrument/Sensor Type sediment oxygen profiler Parameter(s) DOXY
Platform Other : Benthic Lander Manufacturer MPI
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL)
Sensor Type / Model Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height 2500 Sampling interval
Calibration Samples Available Yes Frequency of Calibration Samples yearly
Intercalibration Available Yes Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 01/07/2013 Planned 30/05/2014
Instrument/Sensor Type RCM11 + 5 optodes Parameter(s) COND, Currents, DOXY, TEMP
Platform Other : Benthic Lander Manufacturer AAnderaa
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL)
Sensor Type / Model Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height 2500 Sampling interval 3600 second(s)
Calibration Samples Available Yes Frequency of Calibration Samples yearly
Intercalibration Available Yes Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 01/07/2013 Planned 30/05/2014
Instrument/Sensor Type Kiel-type sediment trap Parameter(s) Particle Flux
Platform Mooring Manufacturer KUM
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL)
Sensor Type / Model K/MT234 Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height 200, 1200, 2300 Sampling interval
Calibration Samples Available Yes Frequency of Calibration Samples
Intercalibration Available Yes Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 01/07/2013 Planned 30/05/2014
Instrument/Sensor Type SeaGuard Optode Parameter(s) DOXY
Platform Mooring Manufacturer AAnderaa
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL)
Sensor Type / Model Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height 1200 Sampling interval 3600 second(s)
Calibration Samples Available Yes Frequency of Calibration Samples yearly
Intercalibration Available Yes Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 01/07/2013 Planned 30/05/2014
Instrument/Sensor Type SBE37-SMP Parameter(s) COND, PRES, TEMP
Platform Mooring Manufacturer Sea-Bird Electronics
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL)
Sensor Type / Model Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height 50, 2500 Sampling interval 3600 second(s)
Calibration Samples Available Yes Frequency of Calibration Samples yearly
Intercalibration Available Yes Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 01/07/2013 Planned 30/05/2014
Instrument/Sensor Type Doppler current meter RCM11 Parameter(s) COND, Currents, DOXY, PRES, TEMP, TURB
Platform Mooring Manufacturer AAnderaa
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL)
Sensor Type / Model Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height 50, 250, 1500, 2300 Sampling interval 3600 second(s)
Calibration Samples Available Yes Frequency of Calibration Samples yearly
Intercalibration Available Yes Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments