E1-M3A

POSEIDON E1-M3A

Multidisciplinary mooring located at the eastern Mediterranean off shore Crete island, an area of open sea conditions, characterized as extremely oligotrophic where dense waters with intermediate and deep characteristics are formed.

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Infrastructure Location

Study Area

Location Cretan Sea
Distance from Land 46.0 km
Max Depth 1440 m
Oceanographic features of area The Cretan Sea is the largest and deepest basin (2500 m) in the south Aegean Sea. It has an average depth of 1000 m and two deeper troughs in the eastern part (2561 & 2295 m). It is linked with the Levantine basin and the Ionian Sea through the eastern and western straits of the Cretan Arc respectively; via sills that are no deeper than 700 m. Outside the straits the seabed plunges towards the deep basins of the Hellenic Trench (depth ~ 3000 – 4000 m). To the north it is bounded by the Cyclades Plateau at a depth of 600m.
The hydrological structure in the Cretan Sea is dominated by multiple scale circulation patterns and is an area of deep-water formation. It acts as a reservoir for heat and salt for the Eastern Mediterranean. The circulation in the Cretan Sea is dictated by the combined effect of two gyral features, an anticyclonic eddy in the west and a cyclonic eddy in the east.
During spring, summer and autumn the Cretan Sea is stratified and exhibits an oligotrophic ecosystem characterized by a food chain composed of very small phytoplankton cells and small heterotrophs and bacteria. This has a negative effect on energy transfer to the deeper water layers and the benthos. This is magnified by the high water temperatures (>14 oC) and high oxygen concentrations (>4 ml l-1) enhancing decomposition rates of organic matter leaching out from the euphotic zone.
Relevant publications isi journals Nittis K., Tziavos C., Thanos I., Drakopoulos P., Cardin, V., Gacic M., Petihakis G. and R. Basana, 2003: The Mediterranean Moored Multi-sensor Array (M3A): System Development and Initial Results. Annales Geophysicae, Vol.21, pp. 75-87.

Petihakis G., Drakopoulos, P., Nittis, C., Zervakis, V., Christodoulou, C. and C. Tziavos, 2007: M3A system (2000 – 2005) – operation and maintenance. Ocean Science, 3, 117–128.

Nittis K., Tziavos C., Bozzano R., Cardin V., Thanos Y., Petihakis G., Schiano M.E., and F. Zanon, 2007: The M3A multi-sensor buoy network of the Mediterranean Sea. Ocean Science, 3, 229-243.

Petihakis G., Triantafyllou G., Allen J. I., Hoteit I. and C. Dounas, 2002: Modelling the Spatial and Temporal Variability of the Cretan Sea Ecosystem. Journal of Marine Systems, Vol.36(3-4), pp. 173-196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-7963(02)00186-0.

Triantafyllou G., Hoteit I. and G. Petihakis, 2003: A singular evolutive interpolated Kalman filter for efficient data assimilation in a 3-D complex physical-biogeochemical model of the Cretan Sea. Journal of Marine Systems Vol.40, pp. 213-231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-7963(03)00019-8.

Triantafyllou G., Petihakis G. and J.I Allen, 2003: Assessing the performance of the Cretan Sea ecosystem model with the use of high frequency M3A buoy data set. Annales Geophysicae, Vol.21, pp. 365-375.

Hoteit I., Triantafyllou G. and G. Petihakis and J.I. Allen, 2003: A singular evolutive Kalman filter to assimilate real in-situ data in a 1-D marine ecosystem model. Annales Geophysicae, Vol.21, pp. 389-397.

Triantafyllou G., Korres G., Petihakis G., Pollani A., and A. Lascaratos, 2003: Assessing the phenomenology of the Cretan Sea shelf area using coupling modelling techniques. Annales Geophysicae, Vol.21, pp. 237-250.

Hoteit I., Triantafyllou G. and G. Petihakis, 2004: Towards a data assimilation system for the Cretan sea ecosystem using a simplified Kalman filter. Journal of Marine Systems, Vol.45, 159-171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2003.11.003.

Triantafyllou G., Hoteit I., Korres G., and G. Petihakis, 2005: Ecosystem Modeling and Data Assimilation of Physical-Biogeochemical processes in Shelf and Regional Areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Applied Numerical Analysis and Computational Mathematics, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 262-280.

Hoteit I., Triantafyllou G. and G. Petihakis, 2005: Efficient Data Assimilation into a Complex 3-D Physical-Biogeochemical Model Using a Semi-Evolutive Partially Local Kalman Filter. Annales Geophysicae, Vol.23, pp3171-3185.

Relevant publications proceedings published in the context of conference

Scientific Researchers

Name Email
Dimitris Kassis <Please login to view>
Costas Frangoulis <Please login to view>
Makis Korres <Please login to view>
George Petihakis <Please login to view>
George Petihakis <Please login to view>
Stella Psarra <Please login to view>
Manolis Potiris <Please login to view>

Technicians

Name Email
Paris Pagonis <Please login to view>
Manolis Ntoumas <Please login to view>
Manolis Pettas <Please login to view>
Nikos Zisis <Please login to view>
Giannis Marakis <Please login to view>
Kostas Thomadakis <Please login to view>

Status / Maintenance

System Status Operational Planned Frequency 6 month(s)
Platform Required Deep Sea Research Vessel, Rigid Inflatable Boat People Involved 7
Duration of Operations 2 day(s) Cleaning Yes
Replacments Yes Download Data Yes

Data Information

Final data output format NetCDF Data Quality Check Yes
Type of quality check on real-time/near-real time data Automatic Real Time – Data availability target hours
Type of Quality check on delayed mode data Manual Delayed Mode – Data availability target weeks
Own data management Yes Type of use of data Data assimilation Research Private use Others
Data Management Link www.poseidon.hcmr.gr/listview.php?id=17
GEOSS URN
GEOSS Link

TNA

The station is operational since January 2000 with significant upgrades through research projects. The new POSEIDON E1-M3A system operates at the same site (1440m depth) and has a single mooring line configuration that hosts sensors for temperature and salinity at 9 depths (1, 20, 50, 75, 100, 250, 400, 600, 1000m) as well as chl-a, dissolved oxygen, PAR and light attenuation at 20, 50, 75 and 100m. The surface buoy hosts a complete set of sensors for air-sea interaction studies (wind speed and direction, air pressure, air temperature, wave height and direction, relative humidity, precipitation, radiance, irradiance, radiometer and pyrometer) as well as an ADCP for current speed measurements in the upper 100m and a CO2 sensor. The station was upgraded with a mooring of two sediment traps (200 & 1400m) close to the buoy deployed in January 2011. Moreover a monthly in situ sampling program has been established since March 2009. In the framework of this sampling program a wide range of physicochemical and biological parameters in the euphotic zone are measured in the field or in the laboratory.

The location of the buoy is an area of open sea conditions, characterized as extremely oligotrophic where dense waters with intermediate and deep characteristics are formed. A dipole gyre system in combination with the presence of a number of water masses creates a unique ecosystem governed mainly by physical processes.

Hosting:
Buoy can host additional instrumentation for atmospheric and air-sea interface.

Mooring can host both real-time as well as autonomous systems. Clamp systems and other mechanical adapters can be manufactured locally upon request.

Data: Atmosphere: air temperature, air pressure, wind speed/direction, precipitation, humidity, radiance, irradiance, pyrometer PSP, radiometer PIR

Ocean-Air interface: Wave height, salinity, temperature, CO2

Water column: Salinity and temperature (20, 50, 75, 100, 250, 400, 600, 1000m), turbidity, chl-a, oxygen, PAR (20, 50, 75, 100m), currents (5-50, 10 bins of 5m)

Sediment traps: OC, ON (C13, N15), TC, TN, (C13, N15), Si, Al, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb, Biochemical (proteins, sugars, lipids), Biomarkers, Black Carbon.

Avaliable for TNA Yes
Prefered time period for TNA During the cruises to serve the mooring (every 6 month for 2-3 days)
TNA Support offered Logistical, technological and scientific support for all components. For more information
http://www.poseidon.hcmr.gr. Other capabilities and services: Data and sensor inter-comparison and validation missions. Other parameters can be measured during trips and sensors can be tested, calibrated , etc. CTD, light, Oxygen, Chl-a (0-150 CTD casting), NH4, NO3, NO2, PO4, SiO4, Chl (4 size fractions), microbial stock, phytoplankton stock (surface, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100m), zooplankton stock (0-100m).
Services Available Surface platform and mooring line with instruments
Potential Additional Uses Additional sensors can be attached to the buoy and mooring line
Data Ports Logging on the buoy's computer and Self logging
Availability of External Power Yes but with restrictions
Instrument installation methodology

The instruments on the buoy can be installed underneath on custom attachments as well as inside the hull fixed positions.

Regarding the mooring line, instruments are attached on inductive cable.

Data History

Data since Januray 2000

Instrument installation methodology The regular procedure involves during the first day the recovery of the buoy the cleaning of the sensor, data downloading, battery change, replacing consumables etc and deployment during the second day once a thorough check on deck is performed.
Observatory maintenance estimated or planned schedules Every 6 months (winter - summer)
Data policy and access FixO3/EuroSITES data policy: http://www.eurosites.info/pdf/EuroSITES%20Data%20Policy.pdf

http://www.poseidon.hcmr.gr/article_view_no_news.php?id=121

Additional comments
Modality of access In-Person Partially Remote Remote

Hardware Services

Type Model Use Problems Solution adopted
Buoy Oceanor Frames can be tailored made for mounting sensors on the buoy (surface and subsurface) Detailed drawings are required
Mooring line Custom Sensors can be self mounted on the inductive cable
Buoy Oceanor Two hosting ports on the buoy for sensors biofouling cleaning during maintenance visits

Software Services

Sensor type/model Software for the pre-processing Software for the post post-processing Software for the production of graphical output
RDI ADCP Longranger RDI WinSC RDI WinADCP Matlab
Wetlabs FLNTU Wetlabs ECOview Sea-Bird DataProcessing Matlab
Aanderaa DO optodes Aanderaa Oxyview Sea-Bird DataProcessing Matlab
Seabird 16plus-IM C-T-P Sea-Bird Seaterm Sea-Bird DataProcessing Matlab
Seabird 37 IM Sea-Bird Seaterm Sea-Bird DataProcessing Matlab
Seabird 37 SIP Sea-Bird Seaterm Sea-Bird DataProcessing Matlab

Sensors

Deployed 21/01/2014 Planned
Instrument/Sensor Type RDI Longranger ADCP Parameter(s) Currents
Platform Mooring Manufacturer Teledyne RD Instruments
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL) http://www.rdinstruments.com/longranger.aspx
Sensor Type / Model ADCP Longranger 75 kHz Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height 400 Sampling interval 10800 second(s)
Calibration Samples Available No Frequency of Calibration Samples
Intercalibration Available No Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 21/01/2014 Planned
Instrument/Sensor Type Seabird 37 C-T Parameter(s) CTD
Platform Mooring Manufacturer Seabird
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL) http://www.seabird.com/products/spec_sheets/37impd ata.htm
Sensor Type / Model CTD Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height 250,400,600,1000 Sampling interval 10800 second(s)
Calibration Samples Available No Frequency of Calibration Samples
Intercalibration Available Yes Intercalibration Platform CTD cast / Laboratory
Intercalibration Frequency Yearly
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 21/01/2014 Planned
Instrument/Sensor Type Seabird 43 Parameter(s) DOXY
Platform Mooring Manufacturer Seabird
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL) http://www.seabird.com/products/spec_sheets/43data .htm
Sensor Type / Model DO sensor Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height 20,50,75,100 Sampling interval 10800 second(s)
Calibration Samples Available No Frequency of Calibration Samples
Intercalibration Available Yes Intercalibration Platform CTD cast / Laboratory
Intercalibration Frequency Yearly
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 21/01/2014 Planned
Instrument/Sensor Type Wetlabs FLNTU Parameter(s) TURB
Platform Mooring Manufacturer Wetlabs
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL) http://www.wetlabs.com/eco-fl
Sensor Type / Model Fluorometer-Turbidity meter Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height 20,50,75,100 Sampling interval 10800 second(s)
Calibration Samples Available Yes Frequency of Calibration Samples Monthly
Intercalibration Available Yes Intercalibration Platform CTD cast / Laboratory
Intercalibration Frequency Yearly
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 21/01/2014 Planned
Instrument/Sensor Type Young 04106 Parameter(s) Wind Speed, Wind Direction
Platform Buoy Manufacturer Young
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL) http://www.youngusa.com/products/7/
Sensor Type / Model Mechanical Wind sensor Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height Surface Sampling interval 10800 second(s)
Calibration Samples Available No Frequency of Calibration Samples
Intercalibration Available No Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 21/01/2014 Planned
Instrument/Sensor Type Vaisala PTB 220A Parameter(s) ATMS
Platform Buoy Manufacturer Vaisala
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL) http://www.vaisala.com
Sensor Type / Model Digital Barometer Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height Surface Sampling interval 10800 second(s)
Calibration Samples Available No Frequency of Calibration Samples
Intercalibration Available No Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed Planned 20/06/2014
Instrument/Sensor Type SAtlantic ocr-507-ricsw Parameter(s) Irradiance
Platform Buoy Manufacturer SAtlantic
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL) http://satlantic.com/ocr500
Sensor Type / Model Irradiance sensor Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height Surface Sampling interval 10800 second(s)
Calibration Samples Available No Frequency of Calibration Samples
Intercalibration Available No Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed Planned 20/06/2014
Instrument/Sensor Type Satlantic ocr-507-r10w Parameter(s) Radiance
Platform Buoy Manufacturer SAtlantic
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL) http://satlantic.com/ocr500
Sensor Type / Model Radiance sensor Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height Surface Sampling interval 10800 second(s)
Calibration Samples Available No Frequency of Calibration Samples
Intercalibration Available No Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 21/01/2014 Planned
Instrument/Sensor Type Nortek Aquadopp 400 kHz Parameter(s) Currents
Platform Buoy Manufacturer Nortek
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL) http://www.nortek-as.com/en/products/current-profi lers/aquadopp-profiler
Sensor Type / Model Current Profiler Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height Surface Sampling interval 10800 second(s)
Calibration Samples Available No Frequency of Calibration Samples
Intercalibration Available No Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 21/01/2014 Planned
Instrument/Sensor Type SBE 37 Sip Parameter(s) COND, TEMP
Platform Buoy Manufacturer Seabird
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL) http://www.seabird.com/products/spec_sheets/37sipd ata.htm
Sensor Type / Model CT Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height Surface Sampling interval 10800 second(s)
Calibration Samples Available No Frequency of Calibration Samples
Intercalibration Available Yes Intercalibration Platform CTD cast / Laboratory
Intercalibration Frequency Yearly
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 21/01/2014 Planned 20/06/2014
Instrument/Sensor Type Young 50203 Parameter(s)
Platform Buoy Manufacturer Young
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL) http://www.youngusa.com/products/3/17.html
Sensor Type / Model Precipitation Gauge Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height Surface Sampling interval 10800 second(s)
Calibration Samples Available No Frequency of Calibration Samples
Intercalibration Available No Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 21/01/2014 Planned
Instrument/Sensor Type Omega Parameter(s) Air Temperature
Platform Buoy Manufacturer Omega
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL) http://www.omega.com
Sensor Type / Model Air Temperature sensor Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height Sampling interval
Calibration Samples Available No Frequency of Calibration Samples
Intercalibration Available No Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 21/01/2014 Planned
Instrument/Sensor Type Fugro OCEANOR Wavesense Parameter(s) Wave Height
Platform Buoy Manufacturer Furgo Oceanor
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL) http://www.oceanor.com/systems/seawatch/buoys-and- sensor/Oceanor-Wavesense
Sensor Type / Model Wave sensor Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height Surface Sampling interval 10800 second(s)
Calibration Samples Available No Frequency of Calibration Samples
Intercalibration Available No Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 21/01/2014 Planned
Instrument/Sensor Type Vaisala HMP 45A Parameter(s) RELH
Platform Buoy Manufacturer Vaisala
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL) http://www.vaisala.com
Sensor Type / Model Relative Humidity sensor Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height Surface Sampling interval 10800 second(s)
Calibration Samples Available No Frequency of Calibration Samples
Intercalibration Available No Intercalibration Platform
Intercalibration Frequency
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments

Deployed 21/01/2014 Planned
Instrument/Sensor Type Seabird 16plus-IM C-T Parameter(s) CTD
Platform Mooring Manufacturer Seabird
Instrument/Sensor documentation (URL) http://www.seabird.com/products/spec_sheets/16plus IMdata.htm
Sensor Type / Model CTD Power Supply
Approximate Depth / Height 20,50,75,100 Sampling interval 10800 second(s)
Calibration Samples Available No Frequency of Calibration Samples
Intercalibration Available No Intercalibration Platform CTD cast / Laboratory
Intercalibration Frequency Yearly
Problems
Solution Adopted
Datasheet URL
Comments