Glossary

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Accuracy

Degree of closeness between the result of a measurement and the value of the measure (or true value of the measurement).

Acoustic releaser

Device installed on moorings or sea-bed platforms that allows their recovery by means of acoustic command.

Acquire

Obtain the rights to use an entity or resource. Note that the entity itself is not acquired, only the rights to use it.

Activity

A task or grouping of tasks that provides a specialized capability, service, or product.

Adaptive Sampling

Adaptive sampling is a sampling design in which sampling regions are selected based on values of the variables of interest observed. Within OOI, adaptive sampling can be used to modify sampling times of fixed platforms, sampling times and depths of profilers and sampling times, depths, and positions of mobile platforms. Adaptive sampling may be user  directed based on real time data or autonomous based on programmed mission files.

Anchor

Device used to moor oceanographic platforms to prevent their drifting.

Architecture

A concept that identifies components and their associated functionality, describes connectivity of components, and describes the mapping of functionality onto components. Architectures can be of different types, e.g., hardware, software, or system, and can be domain-specific.

Architecture Document

A representation that identifies components and their associated functionality, describes connectivity of components, and describes the mapping of functionality onto components. Architectures can be of different types, e.g., hardware, software, or system, and can be domain- specific.

Argos beacon

Device used to retrieve mooring lines in case of cable break. When the beacon reaches the  surface, it transmits an alert through ARGOS satellite system that enables its identification by means of its position.

Array

A collection of sites, nodes and platforms with a common scientific focus

Ancilary functions

Functions of an element devoted to keep its operation capacity over time including its health, its protections against fouling and corrosion, the sensing of internal parameters.

Authentication

The act of establishing or confirming an entity as a trusted member of a community. This might involve confirming the identity of a person, the origins of an artefact, or assuring that a computer program is what it is reported to be.

Availability

The ratio of (a) the total time a functional unit of software or hardware is capable of being used during a given interval to (b) the length of the interval.

Backhaul

The link (fibre-optic) between the shore station and “centre”

Basic Core Seafloor Measurements (BCSM)

Co-located measurement of pressure, single point near bottom currents, acoustic pressure waves, ground motions associated with variable magnitude earthquakes (<1 to > 7), and water temperature in sites located at all plate boundaries and intraplate. Competes with generic sensors.

Beach Manhole

A vault at a beach to allow buried cable to come to the surface at the shore station.

Benthic experiment package

A mounting platform for sensors that require proximity to the seafloor. Complementary to generic sensors.

Buoy

A device whose weight is less than that of an equal volume of the sea water in which it is deployed. The excess buoyancy provided by the buoy can be used to counter the weight of a mooring and drag forces caused by current, wind, or wave actions. A buoy may be either a surface or subsurface buoy.

(1)  Surface buoys have some of their volume above mean sea level and can be used to support

components, such as meteorological instruments or radio telemetry subsystems that must be operated above the water level.

(2)  Subsurface buoys remain completely submerged except during deployment and recovery of a mooring.

Burst sampling

Intermittent rapid sampling that far exceeds the standard time series measurements requirements. The rate of burst sampling and the duration will generally be instrument specific but will require the ability to measure and record data at rates that can exceed 1 Hz.

Cable

A bundle of electrical and/or optical conductors, insulated from each other and protected as a whole with an external jacket, used for transmission of power and data. Cables may include a strength member and external armoring. Cable can refer to bundles with our without connectors or terminations. Cables may connect seafloor components, or may be components of moorings.

Cable Assembly

Cable segments with connectors or terminators.

Cabled observatory

Seabed platforms connected to land by underwater cables.

Cable Line

The entire string of Cable Segments extending from a Cable Shore Station to the last Primary Node on the string.

Cable Segment

The cable and equipment between a Cable Shore Station and a Primary Node or the cable and equipment between two Primary Nodes.

Cable Shore Station

The shore terminus of a Cable Line and contains all equipment required to operate that particular Cable Line. Synonymous with Shore Station.

Calibrate

Test and/or adjust the accuracy of a measuring instrument or process by comparing its output with a reference.

Catalogue

Entity that keeps track of resources and enables their discovery or query.

Co-located

Different measurements located in proximity adequate enough to accomplish the specified effort.

Communications and power manager

A microcomputer that monitors and controls the use of telemetry devices and forwards power restrictions to DCL’s based on the availability of platform power.

Compliant mooring

A taut mooring that incorporates compliant hose to allow a surface buoy to move freely with the waves without accelerating subsurface mooring components and deeper instrumentation.

Configuration

The set of parameters that defines how a computer or system operates.

Configuration Control

An element of configuration management consisting of the evaluation, coordination, approval or disapproval, and implementation of changes to configuration items after formal establishment of their configuration baseline.

Configuration Management

The technical and administrative direction and actions taken to identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a configuration item; to control changes to a configuration item and its characteristics; and to record and report change processing and implementation status.

Configure

Set up an entity for use, testing, or operation. An entity can be configured for normal or specific operating modes; this may happen at any point in the life cycle of the entity, as long as it does not violate OOI policy.

Controller

A device or system that may manage power and/or communication for multiple sensors or multiple actuators.

Co-registered

Different measurements made within 1 meter of each other. For black smoker systems,  co registered measurements of temperature and chemistry are made in the same orifice, space allowing.

Creep

Slow movement along a fault that may be seismic or aseismic; slumping of landforms (rock or sediment) such as may occur in zones of gas hydrate formation.

Cyberinfrastructure

The term “cyberinfrastructure” describes research environments that support advanced data acquisition, data storage, data management, data integration, data mining, data visualization and other computing and information processing services distributed over the Internet beyond the scope of a single institution.

Data

Term that is not used in its unqualified form. In the oceanography domain, refers to the measurements that come from sensors and not to any data products computed based on these measurements. Observational data is synonymous.

Data Acquisition System

An assembly of controllers, sensors, actuators.

Data Circuit-terminating Equipment

Equipment that handles the signal conversion and coding necessary for coupling the Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) to a communications link.

Data Concentrator/Logger

A microcomputer based entity that is the hardware interface to moored CGSN sensors, responsible for configuring, powering and monitoring health of sensors, acquiring and storing data and forwarding data as requested either directly to a telemetry device or via the Communications and Power Manager (CPM).

Data Logger

Data Sampler with persistence. Can have a concept of time.

Data Management

The principles, processes, and systems for sharing and controlling information resources.

Data Product

An information product that is derived from observational data through any kind of computation or processing. This includes aggregation, analysis, modelling, or visualization processes.

Data Source

An entity that produces data, possibly including all antecedent data. products and data sources.

Data Stream

A sequence of data packets used to continuously transmit or receive information, typically in real time and without any direct action on the part of the data consumer.

Data Terminal Equipment

The functional unit that serves as a data source or sink. It is typically connected to Data Circuit- Terminating Equipment (DCE) in order to send or receive data over a communications link.

Database

A collection of data arranged for ease and speed of search and retrieval.

Dataset

Any information product handled by the CI Data Management services network. A dataset contains the actual information product as well as descriptive metadata on potentially multiple levels. Examples of data sets include observational data, derived data, data products, aggregate data, or analysis and visualization data products.

Deactivate

Disable to preclude further use; stop using.

Decommission

To permanently take out of service.

Deep profiler

A profiler used to profile the water column from as close as practicable to the seafloor to 150-200 m below the sea-surface.

Deploy

Put an entity into a given location, context, or configuration (typically, the final location where it is intended to operate-this is part of the OOI activity commission. Deployment may be hierarchical, with entities deployed on other entities. Deployment may also be repeated, with entities deployed over and over for operation, as a CTD rosette off a ship-this corresponds to the OOI activity activate.

Deployment

Interval The period between launch and recovery.

Detect

Derive from a stream of information or data the knowledge that a condition has been  met. Detection may be followed by other automated actions, including notification of interested parties, presentation of relevant information, and controlling the response.

Determination

To ascertain a quantity or trend by application of observation(s) or investigation.

Device

An electronic or optronic apparatus that can be connected through peer-to-peer communication and can provide information and data about itself and/or its environment. Device can encompass both sensor and actuator.

Documentation

The list of artefacts used to describe the entities identified and the operations performed on them. Documentation can be embedded or external, static or dynamic, automatically generated or manually composed. It can be more or less structured, and can encompass comments and other auxiliary information.

Domain Model

A conceptual model of a system that describes the involved entities and their relationships.

EIA RS-232-C

Serial Link Standard for serial binary data signals connecting between a DTE

Electrical Mechanical (EM)

Designating mooring elements with copper conductors to allow power and data to flow through the mooring line. EM elements include moulded chain and stretch-hose with spiral-wrapped conductors.

Electrical Optical Mechanical (EOM)

Applied to transmission system such as a cable. It transmits power through electrical wires, data through fibre optics and has a mechanical function such as mooring.

Element Management System

System to manage power, communication, ancillary functions and equipment health for specific nodes or subsystem components.

Enable

(1)  Make possible; does not directly perform; provide basic measurements, data, or components to a system or process; a catalyst;

(2)  For the OOI network, defined as providing the measurement, data, and/or services to allow the end-user to conduct scientific research into one of more OOI high priority science topics.

Encryption

The translation of data into a secret code, unreadable without special knowledge.

Environmental Consumable

Natural resources or properties such as sound, light, terrain, chemicals, etc. represent those consumables that the observatory sensors will attempt to use. Those consumables may or may not be renewable.

Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier

Sometimes called an optical amplifier, an EDFA is a section of optical fiber that is doped with rare earth elements and pumped with a diode laser that boosts the intensity of an optical signal. This allows optical transmissions to be amplified without any electronic conversions.

Ethernet

A family of frame-based computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs) standardized as IEEE 802.3.

Eulerian observatory Fixed point observatory. Exchange Point

A topic of conversation within an exchange. Producers and consumers of information messages interact in a publish-subscribe way through an exchange point. Each exchange point is represented as message queue on a message broker.

Exchange Space

A collection of exchange points within an exchange, often driven by topic or organizational structure.

Expandable

Capable of increasing in scope, number of components, or reach (physical extent).

Experiment

The combination of one or more users, tools, and instruments used in concert to (in)validate a scientific hypothesis. An experiment will produce data products and metadata describing it. An experiment can be interactive (requiring the presence of a user to drive it and make decisions to alter its course) or autonomous (pre-programmed).

Extensible

Capable of expanding in scope, effect or meaning (logical concept) Ex: adding features.

Extensible Markup Language (XML)

A cross-platform, extensible, and text-based standard for representing data. It is a key technology in the development of web services.

Extension Cable

Includes Connectors – Cable – CTA. Synonymous with Extension Cable Assembly

External Aggression

Potentially damaging force(s) which may result from human activities (e.g. trawling, drilling, anchoring), but which are not caused by normal system operation.

External Stakeholder

An interested party that is not normally a member of the observing system or cyberinfrastructure; often refers to governmental or organizational entities that will benefit from or be affected by outputs of the system.

Federation

The process of transparently integrating multiple, autonomous, distributed elements of the cyberinfrastructure.

Firewall

A network security system used to monitor and restrict traffic between two networks.

Float

Device that is buoyant in water.

Flux

The rate at which momentum, energy, or mass passes over a distance or through an interface (e.g., airsea, mixed layer-deep ocean, sediment-water).

Format

The structure of something, e.g., a data product or data stream

Frame

Submersible metallic structure that hosts scientific equipment.

Galvanic

Isolation Isolating functional sections of an electric system so that there is no electrical path for current to directly flow from one section to the next.

Glider

An autonomous underwater vehicle that propels itself through changes in buoyancy.

Hull

Main body of an oceanographic buoy.

IEEE 802.3 10/100Base-T

Standard 10 Mbits/sec and 100 Mbits/sec Ethernet over 2 pair of copper conductors.

IEEE 802.3ab 1 GigE

Standard for gigabit (1000 Mbits/sec, 125 MBytes/s) Ethernet over wiring that requires four pairs of copper wires.

Infrastructure

a)  Technical structure that supports observations. In regard to ocean observatories infrastructure encompasses the platforms, supporting structures, cables, power supply, communication components and also the software components that are needed for operating the observing system. In some cases instruments and sensors are seen as part of the infrastructure in others not.

b)  A set of research equipments allowing to host several types of experiments. Infrastructure- Instrument Port (ii-port)

Physical interface between instrument link and infrastructure. SIIM would be an example or instance of an ii-port that includes communications, time management, and power management capabilities.

Instrument

A device that contains one or more sensors and a method for converting the information from the sensor into a transmittable and storable form.

Instrument Life Cycle

The suite of events that define the life of an instrument from the expression of its mandate (via the requirements); its purchase or fabrication; its test, integration and deployment; its operational life, including maintenance activities; through to its decommissioning and removal.

Instrument Link

Cable or other (acoustic) connection between instrument and infrastructure.

Interactive Visualization

A visualization that allows human control of some aspect of the visual representation of information, and in which changes made by the human are incorporated into the visualization in a timely manner. In general, interactive visualization is considered a soft real-time task.

Interface Requirements (IR)

Requirements which describe interactions across a boundary, e.g., between IOs, between an IO and an external entity, or between ESONET-EMSO and an external entity.

JBox (Junction Box)

Physical instance of a node, incorporates one or more Instrument Interface (II) ports (to be discussed).

Key Performance Parameter

Key Performance Parameters (KPPs) are the performance characteristics that must be achieved by the design solution. They are the minimum set of measurable and testable attributes or characteristics considered most essential for the system’s capability. They flow from the operational requirements and the resulting derived measures of effectiveness (MOEs). They can be identified by the user, the decision authority, or the operational tester.

Lights Out Management

In computing, involves the use of a dedicated management channel for device maintenance.  It allows a system administrator to monitor and manage servers and other network equipment by remote control regardless of whether the machine is powered on.

Low Power Junction Box (LPJBox)

A node providing regulated DC power and 100BaseT or serial interfaces to Instruments through and Instrument Interface (II) ports.

Low Voltage Node (LVNode)

A node distributing 375 VDC power and 1 GigE data links to other LVNodes or MPJBoxes and 48 VDC power and 100/100 Mbps data links to LPJBoxes.

Maintain

Keep an entity in an operational state; includes the following sub-activities: configure, calibrate, monitor, clean and refurbish.

Maintainability

Probability that a specified software or hardware item will be retained in, or restored to, a given condition in a given period of time, when maintenance is performed in accordance with prescribed procedures and resource.

Manage

Administer, maintain, and regulate, as in resources under one’s control.

Marine Node

A node in the marine environment.

Marine Repair

Repair required seaward of the beach manhole.

Materials Resource Planning

Materials Resource Planning (MRP) is a system for effectively managing material requirements, inventory, and costs in a manufacturing process.

Measurement

The sampling and determination of mass, volume, quantity, composition or other property of an object or event.

Medium Power Junction Box (MPJBox)

A node providing regulated DC power and 100BaseT or serial interfaces to Instruments through Instrument Interface (II) ports. Medium Power Junction Boxes have expansion capabilities to connect other MPJBoxes.

Medium Voltage Converter

A DC/DC converter that takes a voltage of order 10 kV at its input and delivers a reduced voltage of a few hundred volts as output.

Message

A unit of communication between agents.

Message Broker

Software system installation that enables asynchronous message passing communication between distributed processes. Provides queues as end-points for message providers and consumers and performs routing of messages from producers to consumers, potentially across several queues.

Metadata

The set of attributes and their values that characterize a particular resource.

Midwater platform

A component of the cabled hybrid profiler mooring. The midwater platform is a subsurface float located 150-200 m beneath the ocean surface. The RSN midwater platform is connected by conducting cable to the low voltage junction box. The midwater platform will provide a resting position for the winched profiler. It will also serve as the upper float supporting the deep profiler. The platform will also support fixed sensors.

Mission

An operational task, defined by a mission plan, during which the vehicle is active and sampling. A mission may be bounded by launch and recovery, docking events for AUVs, or quiescent mode for gliders.

Mission file

Command files used by AUV’s/gliders to allow new waypoints to be specified along with revised sensor sampling strategies, revised speed, etc.

Modem, acoustic

An electronic device which transmits data bidirectionally between two subsystems using modulated sound waves.

Modem, inductive

An electronic device which transmits data bidirectionally between two subsystems using  an inductive loop. In oceanography the loop typically consists of a plastic-jacketed wire rope (to which sensors employing inductive modems are mounted) closed by a return path through sea water.

Module

Functional component in a distributed system. The unit of granularity in an operational distributed system architecture. Modules can be hierarchically decomposed if necessary.

Molded chain

Mooring chain with spiral-wrapped conductors (and optionally) optical fibres encased in urethane.

Monitor

Observe and check the progress or quality of something over a period of time.

Mooring

Physical platform, containing a buoyant element constrained to a geographic location by an anchoring device.

Mooring, Flanking

An oceanographic mooring located at a horizontal distance from a main mooring to allow the resolution of mesoscale structure, typically at a distance of 50 to 100 kilometres.

Mooring, Hybrid Profiling

A mooring that enables measurements over nearly the entire water column using two, potentially different, types of profilers. One profiler covers the range between a midwater float and the surface and another covers the range between the midwater float towards the bottom.

Mooring, Sub-surface

Buoyant element is below the surface, no surface expression.

Mooring, Surface

Permanent surface expression, Buoyant element is at the surface.

Multi-function Node (to be renamed)

A base component used by CGSN moorings. The MFN serves as the mooring anchor, terminates the bottom of the mooring and provides data and power ports for benthic

instrumentation.

Network

(1)   A physical or virtual link allowing the instantiation of peer-to-peer communication between computing entities in the system;

(2)  A system of interconnected components. Network Management System Supplier furnished

Node

(1)  Entity that aggregates ports and/or distributes power, time, communications; can be chained. Examples: buoy controller, DCL, glider, profiler, J-Box.;

(2)  An abstract unit used to build linked architectural structures. Each node contains activities and possibly links to other nodes.

Observatory

An infrastructure that is able to accommodate sensors and instruments either permanently installed or by demand. Observatories are able to provide certain services like power supply and communication links for all connected instruments. Example: Global, Regional,

Observatory Management System

A software application with interfaces to all of the Primary and Secondary Infrastructure Element Management Systems (EMS) to provide a single point of interface for command and control of the regional infrastructure for the CyberInfrastructure and for the Regional Operations Centre.

Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS)

Seismometer designed to monitor acoustic and seismic natural or anthropogenic events.

Ocean Ground Bed

The Primary Infrastructure “ground anode” located at the Cable Shore Station or on the ocean floor near the ocean terminus of the bore pipe. The return current from all Primary Nodesterminated at the Cable Shore Station will be retuned to “earth” at this location.

Operate

(1) Correctly performing designed functionality; (2) To cause to function.

Operational Period

The period of time less than or equal to the deployment interval during which the vehicle is actively operating (i.e. executing missions). The operational period may not be continuous (e.g., for AUVs this does not include times the vehicle is docked).

Operational Unit

Instantiation of a deployable unit in an execution environment after all initialization and contextualization activities are finished and the unit exposes its services.

Operations Centre

An area containing computer consoles with network connections to the CI control/management system and the Observatory Management System used to monitor, troubleshoot and maintain the whole of the infrastructure.

Peer-To-Peer Communication

The direct exchange of information between two entities using a communication network  following a well-defined protocol that can include authentication and authorization.

Performance Parameter

A measure of behavior or effectiveness of a system; can be used to guide and control progressive development.

Persist

The process of storing information resources throughout the ESONET observatory lifecycle.

Physical location

Measurements at the same physical location not only have to be geographically close but also within close proximity on a platform, i.e., they may be as close as a few centimetres (as determined by the specific instruments).

Platform

Collection of nodes, sensors, instruments together with necessary controllers physically connected together, with a known external geometry. Example: Mooring, Surface Mooring, Profiler, AUV, Glider.

Platform controller

The electronic hardware (deep and shallow moorings, gliders and AUV’s) that is responsible for autonomously or interactively conducting the operation of these platforms.

Plume

A buoyantly-rising volume of water that has anomalous chemical and physical properties with respect to background ocean water.

Point of Presence (POP)

Aggregation point for resources on a network; Example: CyberPOP.

Port

An individually identified physical connection point for a sensor, instrument, node.

Power Feed Equipment

The electronic subsystem, normally located in a shore station, that converts mains power to high voltage DC to supply a submarine cable system.

Precision

The closeness of agreement between independent measurements obtained under stipulated conditions of repeatability, generally expressed as a standard deviation (or standard uncertainty) of measurement results (Taylor and Kuyatt, 1994). Used as a measure of the stability of an instrument/sensor and its capability of producing the same measurement over and over again for the same input signal.

Primary Node

An underwater unit that receives high-voltage DC power and multi Gbps communication links from a Cable Shore Station and provides regulated low voltage power and Gbps communication to a set of “Secondary Infrastructure” science instruments.

Privilege

The necessary authorization requirements that give a user a right to perform a particular role. Designated sequence of operations or events, possibly taking up time, computation power, or other resources, that produces some outcome; may be identified by the changes it creates in the properties of one or more objects under its influence.

Process Definition

Source or executable format of a user-provided process to analyze, transform or otherwise manipulate resources, such as data and data products, and to produce output in various forms to the data distribution network, such as derived data products, detected events, etc. A process definition can be scheduled and instantiated into a process.

Processing Level

A rating given to a data product indicating the level of sophistication of the data set. DATA PRODUCT LEVEL. Data levels 1 through 4 as designated in the Product Type and Processing Level Definitions document. Source: SPSO.

Raw Data

Data in their original packets, as received from the observer, unprocessed by EDOS.

Level 0. Raw instrument data at original resolution, time ordered, with duplicate packets removed.

Level 1A. Reconstructed unprocessed instrument data at full resolution, time referenced, and annotated with ancillary information, including radiometric and geometric calibration coefficients

and georeferencing parameters (i.e., platform ephemeris) computed and appended, but not applied to Level 0 data.

Level 1B. Radiometrically corrected and geolocated Level 1A data that have been  processed to sensor units.

Level 2. Derived geophysical parameters at the same resolution and location as the Level 1 data.

Level 3. Geophysical parameters that have been spatially and/or temporally re-sampled (i.e., derived from Level 1 or Level 2 data).

Level 4. Model output and/or results of lower level data that are not directly derived by the instruments.

Profile

One vertical transit by the profiler between its end points (i.e., a round trip is two profiles)

Profiler

A platform (profiler body) containing a suite of instruments and sensors that are raised and lowered through the water column on a regular basis.

Protocol

A well-defined exchange of tokens (words, packets, etc.) allowing two or more peers to communicate.

Publish

Make something generally known; present something in a format for others to assimilate.

Publish/Subscribe

An asynchronous messaging paradigm where senders (publishers) of messages are not programmed to send their messages to specific receivers (subscribers). Instead, published messages are characterized into classes without knowledge of what (if any) subscribers there may be. Subscribers express interest in one or more classes, and only receive messages that are of interest, without knowledge of what (if any) publishers there are. This decoupling of publishers and subscribers provides greater scalability and a more dynamic network topology.

Quality Assurance

A planned and systematic means for assuring management that defined standards, practices, procedures, and methods of the process have been followed in the performance of a job.

Quality Control

The operational steps performed to enforce quality of a particular product.

Quantification

The analysis of measurements to describe a change in properties expressed as a numeric value.

Queue

Separates producers and consumers of messages in a message passing system; provides a virtual channel with quality of service guarantees. Sink for messages provided by producers and sources of messages forwarded to consumers. Guarantees message ordering, and exactly once message delivery semantics in a transactional context.

Range

The distance a vehicle can travel relative to the water without recharging. Range is dependent on mission parameters and environmental conditions.

Raw Data

The unmodified set of information provided to the CI by an instrument or the marine infrastructure. Synonymous with observed data. Raw data might have already undergone transformation, filtering and correction by the instrument provider. Any such modifications are outside of the control of the CI. The CI will make sure that any raw data it receives from instruments and marine infrastructure will be persisted in their unmodified form.

React/respond

Perform a pre-planned action once an event has been detected. The response can be a simple warning message sent to the owner of the event detection or a more elaborate process that involves the intervention or mobilization of various actors who will further observe and confirm the detected phenomenon.

Real Property

Land, including land improvements, structures and appurtenances thereto, but excluding movable machinery and equipment.

Recipient

The receiver of information.

Recover

To disconnect and retrieve a deployed component from the system.

Refurbish

Bring a device to its nominal state and confirm it is ready for re-deployment in operations.

Register

Provide information about an entity or resource to a service that is responsible for logging and publishing it.

Registrar

Operational entity responsible for ingesting and organizing information about resources.

Registry

An official list, catalogue, or source of information about resources.

Release

(1) As a verb, it indicates that an entity no longer wishes to use another entity or a resource (the inverse of acquire); (2) As a noun, it refers to the distribution of an initial or upgraded version of a system, subsystem, or component (which can be hardware, software, or a combination of both).

Reliability

Probability that a specified software or hardware item performs a given task successfully under specified conditions for a specified length of time or number of cycles.

Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV)

A remotely operated vehicle is a tethered underwater robot. An ROV may sometimes be called a remotely operated underwater vehicle to distinguish it from remote control vehicles operating on land or in the air. ROVs are unoccupied, highly manoeuvrable and operated by a person at  a distance. They are linked to the power and communications source by a tether (sometimes referred to as an umbilical cable), a group of cables that carry electrical power, video and data signals back and forth between the operator and the vehicle.

Repository

A facility providing permanent storage, preservation, disposition, and distribution of information about resources, particularly data and their associated metadata.

Resolution (pertaining to instruments/sensors)

The smallest amount of input signal change that the instrument/sensor can detect reliably.

Resolution (pertaining to spatial or temporal characterization requirements)

The capability to distinguish (i.e., resolve) physical, chemical, or biological features within a specified spatial or temporal interval.

Resource Reference

A link, pointer or bookmark that will indicate the location of a resource of interest, without having to copy it.

Role

Function to be fulfilled by a particular user. Roles allow granting specific functionality to a certain user or group of users.

Sampling

(1) Physically extract a given volume of the milieu (with bottle, core, pumping,…) in the laboratory or in an in situ analyser. (2) Get a measurement from the milieu.

Sampling protocol

The set of rules used to describe scientific measurement, physical sampling and reporting.

Scale (1) System of grouping or classifying in a series of steps or degrees according to a standard of relative size; (2) According to a hierarchy.

Seafloor

The interface between the bottom of the water column and the upper few meters of solid surface beneath it. The seafloor is sampled by instruments on benthic packages and seafloor packages.

Seawater ground

The return current ground “cathode” for a Primary Node.

Seismonument

A cement housing that hosts a short-period seismometer that provides coupling to the seafloor.

Semantic Metadata

Information characterizing the meaning of an entity (often a data set).

Sensor

A device that will convert a physical phenomenon into an electrical signal that can in  turn be digitised through the use of an analog to digital converter. A sensor is normally housed in an instrument. Data coming from sensors is normally raw and needs to be calibrated.

Service

Agreement The legally binding document that describes the service offering to the service user.

Service Agreement Proposal

Request to use a resource together with a proposal of conditions, constraints and parameter ranges. Part of the negotiation process. For instance, the request to use a specific sensor in a certain time interval once an hour for 1 minute, along with its associated bandwidth and impact on the environment.

Service Network

A group of interdependent services covering a specific topic (such as Sensing and Acquisition) that will be implemented as a subsystem.

Serviceable Design Life

The period of time commencing from the date of the Final Acceptance that the System is designed to operate in conformance with the Specifications with proper maintenance.

Shallow Profiler

A profiler used to profile the water column from 150-200 m below the sea-surface to just below the sea surface.

Shore Station

Physical structure housing the marine infrastructure termination and support equipment that interfaces to terrestrial infrastructure (internet and power).

Site

Geographic domain of interest within an array occupied by a collection of physical instances  of nodes and/or platforms together with their instruments and sensors. Examples: Hydrate Ridge, Pioneer Central Surface Mooring, Mobile Assets operating within an Array.

Software Application

A computer program that performs the transformation of an input into an output.

Software Component Package

Entity that wraps and describes a software component. Packages can depend on other packages. A package has a unique name and a version. Packages can be stored in a repository.

Spot measurement

A single measurement in time for which an instrument samples only for the time it takes to record the measurement. This is different from instruments that need to average data for some time period before acquiring a valid measurement. An example of a spot measurement is a water temperature measurement in which the temperature probe is always immersed.

Stand alone observatory

Non cabled infrastructure

Stand alone acoustic observatory (SAAO)

Observatory in which the observation data are typically transmitted from the seabed to the users thanks to an acoustic modem. The receiver can be placed either on a ship for occasional transmissions or on relay-buoy towards a permanent data server on shore.

The main limit of such architectures lies in the modest amount of data they can transmit between two maintenance interventions on the seabed.

Stand alone winch observatory (SAWO)

In a SAWO design, a winch allows a float equipped with satellite transmission system to reach the sea surface to transmit data. This float is immersed when the sea is ice covered or too rough.

State

A property of a resource that persists over time.

Steady-State

Continuous demonstrative behavior of the system within the limits or range of the requirements.

Storage Resource

Physical or virtual unit for arbitrary data storage and retrieval. Can be a network file system, a distributed database, or a read-only data-warehouse interface. Operational units can make use of many storage resources.

Stretch hose

A mooring element comprised of high strength hose, typically encasing spiral wrapped conductors and (optionally) optical fibres. Can stretch upwards of 200% of original length while maintaining electrical and optical continuity.

Submersible

Short range non-military submarine.

Subscribe

Arrange for access to an on-line service; request direct provision of a particular type of information, for example a particular stream of data.

Subseafloor

First layer of the earth crust or sediment situated under the sea. It is applied to depth reachable without specialized drilling vessel.

Subsystem

Implementation and integration unit for all services of a services network together with their data models and user interfaces.

Support

(1) Provide basic physical infrastructure to which things can be added or appended without replacement of the infrastructure; (2) Enable to function or act, does not specifically inhibit or exclude future capability or modification; (3) Provide assistance to people or systems that require it.

Survive

Experience an event without major loss of hardware. System may experience loss of functionality requiring repair to return to normal mode functionality. Also see “operate” and “sustain”. An example would be Solar panels blown out in a 50 year storm, the mooring remains on station and continues to operate on battery power with reduced sampling and telemetry.

Sustain

Experience an event (environmental extreme or condition) without permanent loss of normal mode functionality. System may experience reduction of functionality during event. Also see “operate” and “survive”. Example: Profiler parks on bottom during 25 year storm.

System

A collection of interacting components designed to satisfy a set of requirements.

System Design Life

The period of time commencing from the date of the Final Acceptance that the System is designed to operate in conformance with the Specifications without the need to replace key elements.

Technical Environment

Technologies, interfaces and frameworks required to deploy and instantiate a node in the network. Part of the technical environment is the specification of how to interact with operational units of nodes for monitoring and management purposes.

Technical Performance Measure

Technical Performance Measure (TPM) is a formal method of measuring the technical performance of the system design that is implemented and used during the entire course of the program. TPM enables early assessment of technical risks associated with meeting system requirements. The TPM methodology includes four steps: (1) Identification of requirement to measure; (2) Definition of TPM parameters; (3) Selection of critical parameters; (4) Monitor and assessment of parameter values.

Test Procedure

The detailed instructions for the setup, execution, and evaluation of results for a given verification procedure.

Threshold

As used in TPM, the limiting acceptable value of a technical parameter; usually a contractual performance requirement.

Tilt

A measurement of inflation, deflation or faulting as recorded by changes in the angle of topographic relief as measured in degrees.

Time Stamping

Process of associating time with measurement.

Tolerance Band

Management alert limits placed each side of the planned profile to indicate the envelope or degree of variation allowed. The tolerance band represents the projected level of estimating error. Used in TPM.

Transducer

Collective term for sensors and actuators.

Usability

Usability measures the quality of a user’s experience when interacting with a product or system whether a Web site, a software application, mobile technology, or any user-operated device. In general, it refers to how well users can learn and use a product to achieve their goals and how satisfied they are with that process (US HHS 2006; http://www.usability.gov/).

Use

Employ an entity or resource for some purpose

User

A user is an agent (human or software) that will consume and optionally act upon the infrastructure. A user belongs to a user class.

User Class

Defines the role of a user from which privileges of the user can be derived. User Identity The collective set of user credentials by which a user can be identified or authorized.

Validation

Confirms that the product, as defined, will fulfill its intended use.

Variation

As used in TPM, the difference between the planned value of the technical parameter and the achievement-to-date value derived from analysis, test, or demonstration.

VDSL2

Very-high-speed digital subscriber line 2 (VDSL2 – ITU-T G.993.2) is an access technology that exploits the existing infrastructure of copper wires (twisted pairs).

Verification

Confirms that work products properly reflect the requirements specified for them. In other words, verification ensures that “you built it right.”

Virtual Environment

An environment that is partially or totally based on computer generated sensory inputs. (http://www.fas.org/spp/military/docops/usaf/2020/app-v.htm).

Virtual Local Area Network

A group of hosts (i.e., network ports) that communicate as if they

Virtual Observatory

The network of inter-operable representations of observatories.

Virtual Participation

Participation in an online rather than onsite venue.

Visualization

The depiction of information in a graphical form to aid in its understanding. May include multiple sources or types of information, geographic (2-D), geospatial (3-D), temporal, or geospatiotemporal (4-D) representations of information.

Waypoints

Specific locations used to define the path of a vehicle. Waypoints are typically defined by latitude- longitude pairs or range and angle offsets from another waypoint, and may include depth.

Web Client

An application that can use HTTP (and related protocols) to receive documents written in HTML (and potentially extended languages) from a web server and present those documents to a user.

Web Server

A networked computer and software that can receive HTTP (and related protocols) requests and return HTML documents.

Web Tools

Tools that reside on the internet and allow OOI education providers and users to manipulate OOI data, models and other resources.

Web-based

Information and/or an application made available via the World Wide Web and requiring a web- browser for access (see http://techcollab.csumb.edu/techsheet2.1/glossary.html).

Well-coupled

To obtain high resolution seismic measurements, sensors are either buried in sediments in a caisson (broadband measurements) filled with silica beads or placed in drill holes in basaltic substrate or in seismonuments. This allows direct contact of the sensor to the seafloor (coupling) and an acoustically quiet environment in terms of anthropogenic “noise” and that from currents.

Wet-mateable connector

Electrical and/or fibre-optic connector that can be mate/de-mated under water, at depth, by a ROV.

Wire-Following Profiler

A profiler that ascends and descends along a mooring wire segment.

Workflow

Sequence of work steps in a complex structure. Workflows can be pre-programmed or static, can have dynamic decision points, or can be composed dynamically.

Workstation

EndFragment

Computer to run Element or Observatory Management System software.